نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 استاد جامعهشناسی دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران
2 دانشجوی دکتری جامعهشناسی دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران
یکی از پردامنهترین مناقشههای سالیان اخیر بین حوزه آموزشوپرورش و دولت در نظام جمهوری اسلامی ایران تهیه، تصویب و اجرایی شدن سند تحول بنیادین در آموزشوپرورش است. این مهم بهعنوان سندی بالادستی برای تغییر و تحول در نظام تعلیم و تربیت توسط بالاترین مقامات اجرایی دولت تهیه و تصویبشده است. هدف این تحقیق بررسی فرایند تصویب و اجرای سند تحول بنیادین در آموزشوپرورش با اتخاذ رویکرد انتقادی دولت در جامعه «جوئل میگدال» بوده است. رویکرد مذکور ضمن ارائه شواهدی تجربی و انجام تحقیقاتی میدانی، به فرآیند اتخاذ تصمیمات دولتی و اجرای آنها با دیدگاه دیگری بهجز دیدگاه حاکم وبری میپردازد. این پژوهش با رویکرد کیفی و روش مصاحبه نیمه ساختیافته در جهت جمعآوری دادهها همچنین با استفاده از فن تحلیل مضمون جهت تحلیل مصاحبهها انجامگرفته است. یافتههای پژوهش نشان میدهد، همانطور که نظریه میگدال پیشبینی میکند، دولت جمهوری اسلامی ایران یک تشکیلات یکپارچهای که بهراحتی بتواند قوانین مصوب خود را اجرایی کند، نیست، بلکه هم در درون (ترجیحات سلیقهای مقامات اجرایی، ناهماهنگی بین دستگاهی و...) و بیرون آن متأثر از ساختار جامعه شبکهای (نفوذ گروهها و جریانهای سیاسی اجتماعی و...) رقابتها و اختلافنظرهای زیادی وجود دارد که این امر مانع از اجرایی شدن سند تحول بنیادین آموزشوپرورش و اسناد و قوانین مشابه میگردد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The Process and Outcomes of the Approval and Implementation of the Document of Fundamental Change in Education in IRI
- Mohammad Hossein Panahi 1
- Farshad Jamali 2
1 Professor, Department of Sociology, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran
2 PhD Student, Department of Sociology, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran
The view that education should be in accordance with the ideals and goals of the ruling political system is always considered one of the governments and the cultural and social policy makers of the societies main concerns. This is important that in the form of change management, which has always been considered by the executive managers of the governments. In the investigations related to the government in Iranian society, paying attention to the field of education and creating changes and transformations in it and adapting it to the goals of the Islamic Revolution has always created a challenge between the public sphere and the policy-making sphere in such a way that the issue of change and transformation in Education has become a tragic tragedy.
One of the most extensive disputes in recent years between the field of education and the government in the system of the Islamic Republic of Iran is the preparation, approval and implementation of "the fundamental transformation document in education". This important document has been prepared and approved by the highest executive authorities of the government as an upstream document for change and development in the education system.
The government in the system of the Islamic Republic of Iran was hoping for such a change and development that the document on the fundamental transformation of education in line with the vision document of 1404 and the comprehensive scientific map of the country and the approvals of the Expediency Council, in the session No.
Unfortunately, the implementation process of this document continued facing serious challenges in such a way that after ten years of its approval, it has not been successful in the implementation phase. Therefore, the important point related to the current research is the discussion of social policies that governments apply to change the behavior of large sections of people. In this regard, the purpose of this research was to investigate the process of approving and implementing the document of fundamental transformation in education by adopting the critical approach government in society of the "Joel Migdal". Because from Migdal's point of view and in contrast to Weber's view of this social existence, the government is not a coordinated and coherent entity, but rather a conflicting entity that sometimes works against itself, but this process is not the same for all governments, because governments have the same ability are not.
In accordance with Migdal, strong governments are governments that have the necessary abilities to influence, regulate social relations, extract resources and distribute or allocate resources for social transformation through design, policy and program implementation, on the other hand, weak governments are those that are willing or They do not have the ability for making such social changes.
The mentioned approach, while providing empirical evidence and conducting field research, deals with the process of making government decisions and their implementation with a different perspective than the Weberian perspective. Therefore, contrary to the state-oriented views that place an important role on the government in the process of transformation of the third world and transitioning countries, she does not consider the government to be the only main player in the political field. In other words, Migdal believes in the dispersion, division and fragmentation of power in networked societies and does not consider the power of the government to be Leviathan-type and maximal.
This research was conducted with a qualitative approach and semi-structured interview method in order to collect data and also by using thematic analysis technique to analyze the interviews. A total of 15 interviews were conducted at high levels of policy making and implementation, which led us to the necessary theoretical saturation. The interviewees presented their opinions on topics such as their general attitude towards the fundamental transformation document, the strengths and weaknesses of the document, the obstacles to the implementation of the document, the different types of resistance formed during its implementation, and the role of the education expert body in this regard.
The findings of this research show that, as Migdal's theory predicts, the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran is not a unified organization that can easily implement its approved laws. Rather, there are many competitions and disagreements both inside (the taste preferences of the executive authorities, inconsistency between institutions, etc.) and outside it due to the structure of the network society (influence of social political groups and currents, etc.), which hinders the executive It becomes the document of the fundamental transformation of education and similar documents and laws.
This review also shows the conflicting interactions of various official and unofficial centers in charge of guiding the people; Centers that try to pull the behavioral and normative pattern of the society in a certain direction, that too in a government structure called formal education and in the form of the Ministry of Education.
Of course, such a perception, if it is the statesmen true belief, leads to the simplification of reality and causes statesmen to make unenforceable promises or adopt unenforceable policies without considering the existing facts. Or they don't consider the necessary requirements to implement their policies, the consequences of which are many implementation failures and depriving people of their trust in the government and its ability to solve society's problems.
The executive proposal of this plan is for the government to make optimal use of the existing ability in the organized public sphere in order to find problems and provide solutions, especially in the field of education; Failure to include this importance (not considering public demands and demands) in the formulation and implementation of transformational and structural plans will not only lead to the implementation stage; But in the end, it will cause society's disappointment in political institutions and reduce the society's political trust.
- Fundamental Transformation Document
- Government in Society
- Government of Iran
- Education System