عنوان مقاله [English]
Purpose: With a new approach different from the common theories of the social contract, the writer has tried to propose the necessity and possibility of establishing a Middle Eastern tradition of social contract, especially in hydrocarbonic societies in the Middle East, and describe its nature, possibility and existence.
Methodology: The article has used the Explanative approach
Findings: This study has six main findings: first, social contract in the West was the result of the historical need of individual /society/ bourgeoisie to the absolute state (from the sixteenth century to the eighteenth); but social contract in the Middle East, will be the result of the Middle East’s both quasi-absolute and absolute states’ need to individual / society / bourgeoisie in the Twenty-First Century. Second, in parallel with » developments in commodity«, »movement of Consciousness in the Middle East«, and consequently, » structural transformation of the public sphere in the horizon of these societies«, dominant power elites in the Middle East lose the possibility of complete independence from “individual, society and knowledge/ capital /bourgeoisie technology” everyday and more and more. Thus, the historical equation of “strong states/weak societies” is changed gradually especially in the hydrocarbon societies of the Middle East and “empowering societies/ declining states” are formed along with.
Third, With the historical continuity of this process, at a moment of horizon of Middle East hydrocarbonic societies, a balance of power between state and society is formed and thus, “moment of power compulsion”, “Middle Eastern state of exception” and “exceeding tendency to the birth of subjectivity” have happened in the Middle East. Only at this moment and situation, not out of which, it is possible to move towards gradual establishment of a Middle Eastern type of social contract in these societies. Forth, All societies of the Middle East do not reach the moment of society and state power equality at the same time and alike. Nevertheless, in parallel with approaching this situation and moment, dominant power elites in these societies are faced with the dilemma of choosing “course of the violence, revolution and war” or “peaceful course of social contractualism”. Fifth, Success of new contractualism process depends on two fundamental prerequisite: “violence avoidance of the dominant power elites” and “tradition acceptance of change-seekers social forces” in the moment of power compulsion and Middle Eastern exceptional situation. Sixth, Moving toward the three pillars “new legitimate constitutionalism”, “tax Leviathan” and “responsibility-based constitution orientation” is the most justifiable logic compatible with the Middle Eastern social contract. With these pillars, possibility of occurrence of Middle Eastern social contract is practically better, because it guarantees traditional power benefit and new public will both.
Originality/Value: This study provides new and deep-rooted themes for thought, guidance for political action and a guarantee for benefit of traditional power and public good in the horizon of the Middle East hydrocarbonic societies