نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
استادیار علوم سیاسی دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران
سوئد، به لحاظ اندازه، جمعیت، گسترده سرزمینی و اندازه قدرت نظامی بهعنوان دولت کوچک تلقی میشود؛ سوئد و سایر نوردیکها، دولتهایی هستند که به لحاظ مؤلفههای سخت قدرت، در ردهبندی دولتهای بزرگ قرار نمیگیرند. بااینحال نگاهی به نقش و نفوذ این دولتها در سطح بینالمللی نشاندهنده تأثیرگذاری بسیار زیاد آنها بوده است. سؤالی که در اینجا به وجود میآید، این است که چگونه باوجود وضعیت کوچک بودگی سوئد، اما این کشور از تأثیرگذاری بسیار زیاد اخلاقی در بعد داخلی، منطقهای و بینالمللی برخوردار است؟ فرضیه پژوهش در پاسخ به این سؤال این است که دولت سوئد با ایفای نقش اخلاقی در سطح بینالمللی، توانسته است خود را بهعنوان ابرقدرت اخلاقی معرفی کرده و ترتیبات روابط بینالملل را تحت تأثیر قرار دهد. این دولت در بسیاری از مخاصمات بینالمللی، موقعیت ویژهای را از آن خود میکند و آن موقعیت میانجی است. در مأموریتهای حفظ صلح سازمان ملل متحد، هم نیروهای این دولت مستقر است و هم بودجههای بسیاری را برای انجام این مأموریتها پرداخت میکند. در مبارزات حقوق بشری که در کشورهای درحالتوسعه صورت میگیرد، این دولت جزو حامیان جنبشهای زنان و سایر تحرکات حقوق بشری محسوب میشود. همچنین این دولت پای ثابت مبارزه با تغییرات اقلیمی محسوب میشود.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Sweden; Small State but Moral Superpower
- Reza Rahmati
Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
Problem: Sweden is considered as a small state in terms of its domain, surface area and extension, population, territorial extent and the grandeur of its military power; Sweden and other Nordic countries are states that do not rank as big states in terms of hard power components. However, a look at the role and influence of these governments at the international level has shown their great influence.
Question: The question that arises here is how, despite Sweden's small measure, this country has a great moral influence in the domestic, regional and international dimensions.
Hypothesis: The hypothesis of this research responding to this question is that; Swedish government, by playing a moral role at the international level, has been able to introduce itself as a moral superpower and makes influence the arrangements of international relations. This government takes a special position in many international conflicts and that position is a mediator. In the peacekeeping missions of the United Nations, both the forces of this government are stationed and it pays many budgets to carry out these missions.
Findings: In the human rights attempt that take place in developing countries, this government is considered among the supporters of women's movements and other human rights movements. Also, this government is considered to be a constant in the fight against climate changes. The image of Sweden is carved as a well-functioning utopia; Both in the outside world and among the Swedes themselves. The hospitality of the Swedes has caused the experience of Sweden to be painted as an extreme immigration policy and as a arrogance sign in other European countries (Sanandaji, 2021: 62).
Analysis and Discussion: "Neutrality has been an important part of Sweden's international brand identity" (Bjereld, 1994: 238). Sweden is free of military alliances. This means that "we do not agree on mutual defense guarantees and we ourselves are responsible for the defense of Sweden." On the other hand, the freedom of our military alliance does not create an obstacle; participating in international defense cooperation. In practice, Sweden's position has turned into non-commitment, and the public strongly supports its continuation, however, Sweden's political elites support NATO membership (Ydén, Berndtsson, & Petersson, 2019). This indicates the renaming of the idea of neutrality or non-commitment after the Cold War to respond to the demands of the international environment of the 21st century. However, the aspiration of neutrality in Sweden as well as in Finland is an issue that has changed according to the new security needs of these two governments. The Swedish brand of neutrality and non-commitment can be understood as human values and a basis for Sweden's self-perceived legitimacy to act in global affairs. These (non-commitment and neutrality) are two important concepts in political debates such as NATO membership debate (Simons, Manoilo, & Trunov, 2019).
Conclusion: Sweden's ethical motivations have led to the foreign policy behaviors formation and have sought policy-making results that characterize the more practical layers of this country's foreign policy. The role of feminist foreign policy, the moralism of foreign policy and Sweden's environmental policy are topics which can be mentioned. International relations have traditionally been introduced as the science of analyzing the relations of great powers. Basically, the rationalist mainstream of international relations pays attention to governments from the point of view of the size of power. However, some of the states are considered as small states in terms of the size of their military power, population, territory and other hard components of power, the Nordic states are included in this division of states. these governments, by accepting international roles, internal links with the international normative environment and assuming humanitarian duties, undertake missions that become brands in the world. have become international in humanitarian, feminist, immigration, peace-oriented, neutrality and non-commitment fields. Sweden is one of the leaders among the small Nordic countries. Sweden has created an image which corresponding "human rights government", "environmental government", "green government", "electronic government", "free government" with TV this image which has transmitted internationally. Tarif", "feminist government", "peace-keeping government" and "immigrant-friendly government". However, although international commitments have been made for these roles of Sweden, there have also been damages; Among the contradictory policies of political parties in the country regarding the Swedish brand in some of these fields.
- Moral Superpower
- Small State
- Sociology of Ethics