نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 دکتری علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران ، تهران، ایران

چکیده

رسمیت‌زدایی از دین و تضمین آزادی مذهبی از طریق گنجاندن بندهایی در قانون اساسی و متمم اول، نبود آموزش دینی در مدارس عمومی، آزادی آموزش مذهبی خصوصی، عدم کمک مالی به مدارس مذهبی خصوصی، بی­طرفی دولت نسبت به پیروان ادیان و مذاهب مختلف، عدم مخالفت با حضور و بیان نمادهای دینی در حوزه عمومی از جمله سیاست‌های دینی در مدل سکولاریسم آمریکایی است. تحقق عملی برخی از این سیاست­ها، نتیجه یک پروسه تاریخی بوده است. مقاله حاضر نه تنها فراز و فرودهای سکولاریسم در آمریکا را از سال 1776 تا 1980 مورد بررسی قرار می‌دهد؛ بلکه در راستای پاسخ به پرسش اصلی مقاله، به بحث از نقش عوامل تکثر و رقابت مذهبی، محاسبات عقلایی و گرایشات لیبرالی رهبران سیاسی آمریکا می‌پردازد که در شکل­گیری و تقویت سکولاریسم، مهمترین نقش را داشته­اند. شبه­رسمی بودن پروتستانیسم در اثر بیداری بزرگ دوم و هژمونی آن در حوزه عمومی، از چالش‌های جدی فرآیند تحکیم سکولاریسم آمریکایی در قرن نوزدهم بود؛ اما با افزایش جمعیت اقلیت‌های کاتولیک و یهودی، رقابت‌های مذهبی بین آنها و فعالیت سازمان‌ها و جنبش‌های سکولار، نفوذ فزاینده سیاسی و نهادی اوانجلیست‌های پروتستان و محافظه­کاران مذهبی کاهش یافت و راه برای گسترش روند سکولاریزاسیون در قرن بیستم هموار گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Religious Rivalries, Hegemony of Liberalism, and Institutionalization of Secularism: The Case Study of the United States (1776-1980)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamid Ahmadi 1
  • Borhan Salimi 2

1 Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

2 Phd, Department of Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

The US model of secularism policies include disestablishment of religion and guaranteeing religious freedom through adding related articles in the constitution and the first amendment, the lack of religious education in public schools, the freedom of religious private education, the lack of funding for religious private schools, the neutrality of the state towards the followers of different religions, and non-opposition to the presence and expression of religious symbols in the public domain. The realization of some of these policies has been the result of a historical process. The current study not only examines the rise and fall in US secularism from 1776 to 1980, but also addresses the impact of plurality and religious rivalry, rational calculations and liberal tendencies of US political leaders on constructing strengthening the secularism. The Protestant Semi-establishment through the Second Great Awakening and its hegemony in the public sphere were among serious challenges to the process of consolidating the US secularism in the nineteenth century. But with the increase in the population of Catholic and Jewish minorities, religious rivalries among them and the activities of secular organizations and movements, the increasing political and institutional influence of Evangelical Protestants and religious conservatives diminished, and the way forward was to expand the process of secularization in the twentieth century.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • The US Secularism
  • Protestantism
  • Catholic Minority
  • secularization
  • Religious Politics
  • liberalism
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