نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار مطالعات منطقه ای دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

از سال 2017 نشانه‌های تشدید بحران مشروعیت دولت در فرانسه آغاز شد. این موضوع در جنبش جلیقه زردها نمود پیدا کرد. به نظر می‌رسد گسست هژمونیک مطرح شده در نظریه گرامشی، بتواند توضیح‌دهنده شرایط کنونی دولت فرانسه باشد. مراد از هژمونی، چیرگی مادی و معنوی یک طبقه بر طبقات دیگر است. این چیرگی باید ابعاد سیاسی، اقتصادی و اجتماعی را دربرگیرد؛ به‌گونه‌ای که تبدیل به عقل سلیم شود. اما به نظر می‌رسد در فرانسه، این کارویژه دولت مختل شده است و عقل سلیم زیر سؤال رفته است. وجهه همت این نوشتار پاسخ به این پرسش است که چگونه این گسست شکل گرفته و به بحران مشروعیت دولت انجامیده است؟ فرضیه پژوهش بر این مبنا است که تضعیف رابطه دولت و جامعه مدنی، سبب زیر سؤال رفتن عقل سلیم و بدکارکردی بلوک تاریخی و در نتیجه شکل‌گیری بحران ارگانیک در فرانسه دوره مکرون شده است. برای آزمون این فرضیه، موضوع در بستر مفهومی نظریه گرامشی مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. روش گردآوری داده‌ها  به طور توامان کتابخانه‌ای و مشاهده میدانی بوده است. روش پژوهش، کیفی و مبتنی بر دیالکتیک انتقادی و پراکسیس شناختی است که با متدولوژی گرامشی در یک راستا قرار دارد. برمبنای  آزمون فرضیه، یافته‌های این پژوهش مبین این امر است که بلوک تاریخی نئولیبرالیسم در فرانسه دچار گسست شده است و این مسئله به توانایی هژمون در بهره‌برداری از جامعه مدنی لطمه زده است. نتیجه این وضعیت بحران ارگانیکی است که از فقدان ابزار روشنفکری برای محقق کردن آگاهی سیاسی رنج می‌برد. به همین دلیل هژمون با دست زدن به جنگ موقعیت، وارد روند نوسازی خود شده است و شرایط کنونی گرچه سبب تضعیف هژمون شده است؛ اما درعین‌حال شرایط برای جنگ مانوری و ایجاد هژمونی جدید نیز فراهم نیست.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Dehegemonization and Its Impact on The Crisis of Government Legitimacy in France (2017-2020)

نویسنده [English]

  • Roxana Niknami

Assistant Professor, Department of Regional Studies, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Since 2017, there have been signs of an escalating crisis of government legitimacy in France. The dehegemonization in Gramsci's theory seems to explain the current state of the French government. Hegemony refers to the material and spiritual domination of one class over another. This domination must include political, economic, and social dimensions; In such a way that it becomes common sense. But in France, this feature of the government seems to have been disrupted and common sense questioned. The purpose of this article is to answer the question of how this rupture was formed and led to the crisis of government legitimacy? This article hypothesizes the weakening of the relationship between government and civil society led to the misfunctioning of common sense, the historical bloc, and the onset of the organic crisis in the form of the yellow vest movement. The method of data collection was both library and observation. Gramsci's theory of hegemony was used to test the hypothesis. Based on the qualitative research method of critical dialectics and cognitive praxis, it was found that the historical bloc of neoliberalism in France has interrupted, and this has damaged the hegemon's ability to use civil society. The result is an organic crisis that suffers from a lack of intellectual tools for political awareness. Consequently, the hegemon has entered the process of modernization by waging a position war, and the current situation, although it has weakened the hegemony; But there are no conditions for maneuvering war and creating a new hegemony.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Legitimacy Crisis
  • The Yellow Vests Movements
  • Gramsci
  • hegemony
  • France
الف) فارسی
راثی تهرانی، حبیب، ( 1388). نظریه هژمونی، کتاب ماه علوم اجتماعی ، 1(16): 99-108.
جویل، جیمز، ( 1388)، گرامشی، ترجمه محمدرضا زمردی، تهران: ثالث.
وینست، اندرو، (1376)، نظریه های دولت، ترجمه حسین بشیریه، تهران: نشر نی.
ب) انگلیسی و فرانسوی
Amable, B, Guillaud, E, and Palombarini, S. (2012). Changing French Capitalism: Political and Systemic Crisis in France. Journal of European Public Policy,19(8),1168-1187. doi:10.1080/13501763.2012.709011.
Amable, B, Guillaud, E, and Palombarini, S. (2011). The Political Economy of Neo-Liberalism in Italy And France. Paris: Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne.
Audier, S. (2012). Néo-libéralisme(s) : Une archéologie intellectuelle. Paris: Grasset.
Başbay, M. M. (2019). Yellow Vests: Western Economies Need a Paradigm Shift. TRT World Research Center https://researchcentre.trtworld.com/ publications/discussion-papers/yellow-vests-western-economies-need-a-paradigm-shift.
Bendali, Z and Kabbaj, G. (2019). Ideological divisions in the ‘yellow vest’ movement. Rosa-Luxemburg-Stiftung. Retrieved from https://www.rosalux.eu/en/article/1435.ideological-divisions-in-the-lyellow-vestr-movement.html.
6.Blanpain, N. (2018). L’espérance De Vie Par Niveau De Vie : Méthode Et Principaux Résultats. HAL Retrieved from https://www.insee.fr/fr/statistiques/3322051.
Buddharaksa, W. (2014). The old is dying and the new cannot be born: Organic crisis, social forces, and the Thai state: 1997-2010. Phitsanulok: Naresuan University.
Buttigieg, J. A. (1995). Gramsci on Civil Society. boundary 2, 22(3), 1-29. doi:10.2307/303721.
Buttigieg, J.A. 2005. The Contemporary Discourse on Civil Society: A Gramscian Critique. Boundary 2, 32(1): 33–52. doi:10.1215/01903659-32-1-33.
Caruso, L. 2016. Gramsci’s Political Thought and the Contemporary Crisis of Politics. Thesis Eleven ,136(1): 140–60. doi:10.1177/0725513616669746.
Clifton, J and de la Broise, P. (2020). The Yellow Vests and The Communicative Constitution of a Protest Movement. Discourse & Communication, 14(4), 362–82. doi:10.1177/1750481320910516.
Cox, R.W. (1983). Gramsci, Hegemony and International Relations: An Essay in Method. Millennium, 12(2), 162-175. doi :10.1177/ 03058298830120020701.
Delpirou,A. (2018). La Couleur Des Gilets Jaunes. La Vie des idées. Retrieved from https://laviedesidees.fr/La-couleur-des-gilets-jaunes.html.
Denord, F. (2001). Aux origines du néo-libéralisme en France Louis Rougier et le Colloque Walter Lippmann de 1938. Le Mouvement social, (195), 9-34. doi:10.2307/3780000.
Dobler, C. (2020). The 2019 Grand Débat National in France: A Participatory Experiment with Limited Legitimacy. Bethesda: Democracy International.
Drozdiak, W. (2020). The Last President of Europe: Emanuel Macron`s Race to Revive France and Save the World. New York: Public Affairs.
Duménil, G & Lévy, Dominique. (2001). Costs and Benefits of Neoliberalism. A Class Analysis. Review of International Political Economy, 8(4), 578-607.
Elgie, R. (2018). The Election of Emmanuel Macron and The New French Party System: A Return to the Éternel Marais? Modern & Contemporary France, 26(1), 15-29.doi: 10.1080/09639489.2017.1408062.
Fifi, G. (2019). The Dimensions of Passive Revolution. Alternate Routes: A Journal of Critical Social Research, 30(2), 55-77.
Gane, N. (2012). Max Weber and Contemporary Capitalism. Springer : Palgrave.
Gertz, A and Hallegger, J. (2019). Gramsci and the Yellow Vests: An Analysis of Hegemony and Security. Kassel : University of Kassel.
Gill, S. (2008). Power and Resistance in the New World Order. Berlin: Springer.
Girerd, L, Ray, F.A, Priolo, D, Codou, O, and Bonnot, V. (2020). Free, Not to Engage: Neoliberal Ideology and Collective Action. The Case of the Yellow Vest Movement. International Review of Social Psychology, 33(1):1-18. doi:10.5334/irsp.363.
Goodman, P.S. (2019). Inequality Fuels Rage of ‘Yellow Vests’ in Equality-Obsessed France. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/ 2019/04/15/business/yellow-vests-movement-inequality.html.
Gramsci, A. (1970). Schools and Education. Australian Left Review, 26(1), 71-79.
Gramsci, A. (1971). Selections from the Prison Notebook. Translated by Hoare, Q & Nowell-Smith, G. London: International Publication.
Hall, S. (1988). The Hard Road to Renewal: Thatcherism and the Crisis of the Left. London: Verso.
Hancké, B. (2001). Revisiting the French Model: Coordination and Restructuring in French Industry. In Hall, P.A. and Soskice, D(Eds.), Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage (pp.304-334). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Holst, J.D. and Brookfield, S.D. (2017). Catharsis: Antonio Gramsci, Pedagogy, and the Political Independence of the Working. In Pizzolato, N and Holst, J.D (Eds.), Antonio Gramsci: A Pedagogy to Change the World. Critical Studies of Education (pp.197-220). New York: Springer.
Las Heras, J. (2019). International Political Economy of Labour and Gramsci’s Methodology of the Subaltern. The British Journal of Politics and International Relations,21(2),462–80. doi:10.1177/1369148118815403.
Jehan-Robert, A. (2018). The Future of The Eu Endangered by The Lack of Social Cohesion: The French Yellow Vests Movement's Resounding Warning. EU-topias, 16(1), 101-105.
Jetten, J, Mols, F, and Selvanathan, H.P. (2020). How Economic Inequality Fuels the Rise and Persistence of the Yellow Vest Movement. International Review of Social Psychology, 33(1):1-12. doi:10.5334/irsp.356.
Jubas, K. (2010). Reading Antonio Gramsci as a Methodologist. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 9(2). 224-239. doi:10.1177/ 160940691000900207.
Katz, H. (2010). Civil Society Theory: Gramsci. In Anheier, H.K. and Toepler, S(Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Civil Society (pp.408-412). New York: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-93996-4_23.
Kempin, R and Tokarski, P. (2019). Macron, the Yellow Vests and the National Debate: Playing for Time, Not Solving the Political Legitimacy Crisis. Berlin: SWP.
Kipfer, S. (2019). What colour is your vest? Reflections on the yellow vest movement in France. Studies in Political Economy, 100(3): 209-231. doi:10.1080/07078552.2019.1682780.
Konrad, A. (2012). Theorizing Realist and Gramscian Hegemony. E-International Relations Retrieved from https://www.e-ir.info/2012/09/02/theorizing-realist-and-gramscian-hegemony/.
Larrain, J. (1991). Stuart Hall and the Marxist Concept of Ideology. Theory, Culture & Society, 8(4): 1-28. doi:10.1177/026327691008004001.
Levy, J.D. 2008. From the Dirigiste State to the Social Anaesthesia State: French Economic Policy in the Longue Durée. Modern & Contemporary France,16(4):417-435. doi:10.1080/09639480802413371.
Masquelier, C. (2020). Theorising French eoliberalism: The Technocratic Elite, Decentralized Collective Bargaining and France’s ‘Passive Neoliberal Revolution’. European Journal of Social Theory, 1-21. doi:10.1177/1368431020915855.
McHugh, D. (2013). War of Position/War of Manoeuvre. War of Position Retrieved from https://spiritofcontradiction.eu/dara/2013/02/13/war-of-positionwar-of-manoeuvre.
Morder, R. (2015). Droit D’expression Des Salariés : Une Histoire Encore D’actualité ? Association Autogestion.https://autogestion.asso.fr/droit-dexpression-des-salaries-une-histoire-encore-dactualite/.
Pautz, H. (2011). Revisiting the think-tank phenomenon. Public Policy and Administration, 4(26):419-435. doi:10.1177/0952076710378328.
Prasad, M. (2005). Why Is France So French? Culture, Institutions, and Neoliberalism, 1974–19811. American Journal of Sociology ,111(2):397–413. doi:10.1086/432778.
Schmidt, V. (2013). French capitalism transformed, yet still a third variety of capitalism. Economy and Society, 32(4):526-554. doi:10.1080/0308514032000141693.
Shields, J.G. (2006). Political Representation in France: A Crisis of Democracy. Parliamentary Affairs 59(1):118–137. doi:10.1093/pa/gsj013.
Shultziner, D and Kornblit, I.S. (2020). French Yellow Vest (Gilets Jaunes): Similarities and Differences with Occupy Movements. Sociological Forum, 35 (2), 532-542. doi:10.111/socf.12593.
Thomas, P.D. (2013). Hegemony, Passive Revolution and the Modern Prince. Thesis Eleven, 117(1): 20–39. doi:10.1177/0725513613493991.
Torres, C.A. (2013). Neoliberalism as a New Historical Bloc: A Gramscian Analysis of Neoliberalism’s Common Sense in Education. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 23(2):80-106. doi:10.1080/ 09620214.2013.790658.
Turley, R.S. (2019). Uprising: How the Yellow Vet Protests Are Changing France and Overturning the World Order. Danvers: Clearance Center.