دولت ترکیه و چالش گولنیسم: ابعاد سیاسی و غیردموکراتیک جنبش گولن

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکترای اندیشه سیاسی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

  جنبش گولن (خدمت) از اوایل دهه 1970 به عنوان یک جنبش دینی فعالیت کرده است؛ این جنبش دارای سرمایه­ای عظیم، میلیون­ها هوادار و هزاران نهاد و موسسات آموزشی و رسانه­های متعددی در ترکیه و کشورهای مختلف جهان است. در دهه های اخیر عناصری همچون دموکراسی، تساهل، گفتگوی بین­دینی و اقتصاد بازار در گفتمان این جنبش گنجانده شده­اند. تأکید بر عناصر مدنی و مدرن جنبش، از سوی پژوهشگران مختلف موجب نادیده گرفتن لایه­های غیردموکراتیک و عمیقاً سیاسی آن شده است. این ویژگی ها، در یک دهه اخیر چالش های عمده­ای برای دولت ترکیه ایجاد کرده است که کودتای جولای 2016 یکی از مصادیق برجسته آن بوده است.
پرسش اصلی مقاله این است که آیا می­توان جنبش گولن را یک جنبش اسلام­گرای غیر سیاسی و دموکراتیک به شمار آورد؟ فرضیه مقاله نیز این است که تمرکزگرایی شدید سازمانی، ساختار سلسله­مراتبی و غیرانتخابی، ضعیف بودن مسئولیت­پذیری جنبش در برابر دگرها و عدم پاسداشت تکثر و الزامات منطقی آن ها در عمل، وجوه غیردموکراتیک جنبش را آشکار می سازند؛ علاوه بر این، گفتار و رفتار سیاسی گولن و فعالین این جریان در خلال یک دهه اخیر،  حکایت از جاه طلبی­های سیاسی آن ها دارد. در این راستا، مقاله حاضر، جدا از بحث رهبری، فعالیت­های داخل و خارج ، گفتمان و آراء پژوهشگران مختلف در خصوص ماهیت جنبش و اهدافش، به کنکاش در وجوه غیر دموکراتیک جنبش و ابعاد سیاسی آن نیز می پردازد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Turkish Government and Gülenism: Non-democratic Political Dimensions of the Gülen Movement

نویسندگان [English]

  • Aliashraf Nazari 1
  • Borhan Salimi 2
1 Associate Professor, Department of Political Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 PhD Student of Political Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The Gülen movement as a religious movement rose in the early 1970s and has enormous resources, millions of fans and thousands of educational institutions, culture and numerous media outlets in Turkey and worldwide. In recent decades elements such as democracy, tolerance, inter-religious dialogue and market economy have been included in the discourse of the Gülen movement. Different researchers’ emphasis on civil and modern elements of movement caused the ignoring of its undemocratic and deeply political layers. In the past decade, these features have created major challenges for the Turkish government and the coup in July 2016 has been one of the main examples.
The main question of this paper is whether the movement can be a democratic and non-political Islamic movement. The hypothesis is that statist understanding of Islam, and the government's lack of preference for the rights of the individual, elitist tendencies, extreme centralization of organization, hierarchical structure, top-down decisions and absolute obedience and lack of accountability of the movement against criticism reveal the repressive policy, the authoritarianism and undemocratic nature of this movement.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Gülen Movement
  • islamism
  • modernity
  • Turkish Nationalism
  • Social Movement
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