چالش‌های دولت ملی در عصر جهانی شدن

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دکترای جامعه شناسی سیاسی از دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

دولت ملی نهادی نه چندان دیرپای است که نخستین نمونه­ی آن‌را می‌توان در فردای اعلامیه‌‌ی استقلال آمریکا و انقلاب فرانسه مشاهده نمود؛ انقلابی که این نهاد را بر فراز سرنیزه­ها­ی سپاهیان ناپلئون به‌تمامی جهان گسترانید. نهاد مدرنِ دولت ملی، یکی از مهم‌ترین ابزارهای تکوین و گسترش پدیده جهانی شدن بود. با این وجود، زمانی‌که پدیده جهانی شدن به‌نحو روزافزونی تقویت گردید، بی‌نیاز از حامیان پیشین خود، آنها را به حاشیه رانده و بیش از پیش موجبات تضعیف آنها را فراهم آورد؛ امری که دولت ملی نیز از آن برکنار نماند. اکنون و در آغاز هزاره‌ی سوم ما شاهد این واقعیت هستیم که فرآیند جهانی شدن با پیشبرد چهار نیروی عمده‌، دولت ملی را با چالش‌های حیاتی مواجه کرده است. این چهار نیرو عبارتند از: جهان وطن‌گرایی، رژیم‌ها و سازمان‌های بین‌المللی، بازار آزاد و هویت‌های نورسته. این چالش‌های ذکر شده هرچند در میان مدت نهاد دولت ملی را از میان نخواهند برد؛ اما در درازمدت زمینه­های فروپاشی آن‌را فراهم خواهند آورد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Nation-State Challenges in the Age of Globalization

نویسنده [English]

  • Salman Sadeghi Zadeh
Ph.D. of political sociology from University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Purpose: Nation state is a newly-constructed institution established in the wake of United States declaration of independence and has been spreading all over the world in recent centuries. But nowadays nation-state is in retreat and this is the main problem that this article aims to address. In fact, nation state causes the rudimentary development of globalization but paradoxically as globalization started to spread out nation state was the first victim of its dominance. The main purpose of this article is to analyze the nature and process of this evolution and to try to find inevitably effective elements form which blowing out of the nation state is rooted. So in forthcoming debates, we will analyze the different dimensions of the issue.
Design/Methodology/Approach: Generally speaking, this essay deals with the issue from a historical point of view and with analyzing different aspects effective in the process tries not to be reductive and unilateral. Along with its historical approach this essay remains mainly descriptive especially in explicating the fundamental independent variables which are playing the role in a mutual complementary manner. Although, the globalization may have nothing to do with nation state directly, it affects the exacerbating situation of national state on a regular basis through its forces. The essay introduces the four independent variables and one dependent variable. The four independent variables include cosmopolitanism, international organizations and regimes, unleashed market and newly-arisen identities and the independent variable is nothing but weakening situation of an entity called national state.
Findings: First and foremost, cosmopolitanism is of paramount significance. We can conceive of cosmopolitanism as an ideology which is in full contrast with nationalism. In fact, nationalism which is being replaced by cosmopolitanism apace and swiftly lies mainly on national individual. Cosmopolitanism instead of focusing on national identity focuses mainly on global and universal features and weakens the national portrait of human being by displaying it as a supra-national entity. By this way the infrastructure on which the ideology of nationalism is erected will be faltered. Another variable is empowering the international bodies which could lead to more marginalization of national states. In this case, the UN organization is of the most importance and can see easily its power and ability to limit some actions of national states. The third variable is free and unleashed market which also has the same role especially because it makes national borders more vulnerable and penetrable. From twenty century on we observe the ever increasing development of international market all over the world. It is a fact that many activities of international companies are out of the hands of governments. The last but not the least variable is newly-arising identities among which looming new diasporic communities are of the essence.
Originality/Value: To sum up, this essay is an insightful and intuitive one for anybody who wants to ponder on the different and various dimensions of globalization and its main results especially for national state. In fact, by analyzing the four prior variables readers could intuitively foresee the future of the national state in the age of globalization.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Globalization
  • National state
  • Cosmopolitanism
  • Free Market
  • Newly-arisen Identities
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