بحران مالی حوزه یورو و تاثیر آن بر دولت های رفاه اروپایی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه مطالعات منطقه ای دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

در سی سال اخیر، تشکیک در دولت رفاه افزایش یافته است و بسیاری معتقدند دولت رفاه با ذات سرمایه­داری مدرن در تعارض قرار دارد. بحران مالی حوزه­ی یورو که از سال 2008 میلادی آغاز شد، بار دیگر نقش دولت را وارد امواج تئوریک اروپا کرد و سبب تجدیدنظر جدی در مورد کارویژه­های دولت در سطح قاره­ی اروپا گردید. با آغاز فاز دوم بحران (بحران بدهی در یونان) این انگاره قدرت گرفت که وجود دولت رفاه یکی از دلایل اصلی این بحران و رکود اقتصادی بوده ­است و جهت سرپوش­گذاشتن بر کسری موازنه و کمبود بودجه دولتی، تئوری­های فراوانی در راستای لزوم کم­کردن بار مسئولیت اجتماعی و رفاهی دولت مطرح شد. در نتیجه بسیاری از دولت­های اروپایی مجبور به اعمال اصلاحات عمیق ساختاری و پیروی از سیاست­های ریاضتی شدند. نتیجه­ی این سیاست­ها کاهش قابل ملاحظه­ی سطح دستمزدها،کاهش خدمات اجتماعی و خصوصی­سازی بخش دولتی بود. در این بین این سوال پیش می­آید که بحران مالی حوزه­ی یورو، چه تأثیری بر دولت رفاه در اتحادیه­ی اروپا بر جای گذاشته است و دولت رفاه چه جایگاهی در مدل اجتماعی اروپا دارد؟  در جواب می­توان این­گونه گفت که بحران مالی حوزه­ی یورو، به دلیل کاهش رشد اقتصادی،  سبب کاهش کیفیت دولت رفاه در اتحادیه­ی اروپا شده است و تنها راه نجات دولت رفاه ایجاد رشد توأم با اشتغال­­زایی است که از طریق افزایش رقابت­پذیری حاصل می­شود. برای آزمون فرضیه­ی فوق از مدل نظری جامعه­شناس دانمارکی، گوستاو اسپینگ اندرسن استفاده خواهد شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Eurozone Financial Crisis and Its Impact on European Welfare States

نویسنده [English]

  • Roxana Niknami
Assistant Professor, Department of Regional Studies, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

In the last 30 years, the welfare state has been doubted and many believe that the welfare state is in conflict with the nature of modern and post-industrial capitalism. The financial crisis in the eurozone, which began in 2008, once again, has entered the state into European theoretical waves. And it led to serious reconsideration of state`s functions in the continent. With the onset of the second phase of the crisis, this idea has got power that the existence of a welfare state was the main cause of this crisis and economic downturn. In order to cover the deficit imbalance and the lack of State funding, many theories were put forward to reduce the burden on the state's social and welfare responsibilities. As a result, many European states were forced to apply profound structural reforms and adhere to austerity policies. The result of these policies was a significant reduction in wages, reduction of social services, and privatization of the public sector. The question is: how has the eurozone financial crisis affected the welfare state in the EU and what is the welfare state function in the European social model? The eurozone's financial crisis has lowered the quality of the welfare state in the European Union, due to the slowdown in economic growth, and the only way to save the welfare state is to create a growth with employment,which is achieved through increased competitiveness. To test the above hypothesis, the Danish sociologist Gustavo Sping-Andersen's model will be used.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Welfare state
  • eurozone financial crisis
  • competitiveness
  • European Social Model
  • employment growth

 

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