پوپولیسم راستِ افراطی در دموکراسی‌های اروپایی: مطالعه موردی فرانسه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 . دانشیار علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشجوی دکترای علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

پوپولیسم در دهه‌های اخیر از طریق احزاب و جریانات راست افراطی، پس از یک دوره فترت (در آلمان و ایتالیای بین دو جنگ)، به صحنه سیاسی دموکراسی‌های اروپایی بازگشته است. بازگشت پوپولیسم به صحنه سیاسی کشورهای اروپای غربی در قالب جریانات راست افراطی، ریشه در شکست احزاب سنتی در پاسخ کافی و مناسب به مسائلی چون جهانی‌شدن اقتصاد و فرهنگ، سرعت و مسیر ادغام در اتحادیه اروپا، مسئله مهاجرت و مهاجران، افول اهمیت ایدئولوژی‌ها و سیاست طبقاتی، کاهش علاقه مردم به مشارکت سیاسی و بدبینی و عدم اعتماد شهروندان به سیاست‌مداران دارد. احزاب راست افراطی، در چند دهه‌ی اخیر توانسته‌اند با شعارهای پوپولیستی، نه تنها حضور ملموسی در حیات سیاسی این جوامع داشته باشند، بلکه موفقیت‌های قابل‌توجهی نیز در فرآیندهای انتخاباتی کسب کرده‏اند. پوپولیسم راست افراطی در این جوامع، تنها مدلی از پوپولیسم در دهه‌های اخیر می‌باشد که در جامعه‌شناسی سیاسی امروز از آن تحت عنوان نئوپوپولیسم یادشده و مباحث قابل اعتنایی در محافل آکادمیک غربی پیرامون آن مطرح شده است. مقاله حاضر با بهره‌گیری از روش توصیفی ـ تحلیلی، ضمن بازخوانی مباحث نظری درخصوص پوپولیسم، به بحث از پوپولیسم جبهه‌ی ملیِ فرانسه و تبعات قدرت‌گیری این حزب، به‌عنوان برجسته‌ترین نماینده راست افراطی در صحنه سیاسی فرانسه‏ می‌پردازد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Extreme right-wing populism in European democracies:Populist extreme right in France

نویسندگان [English]

  • Aliashraf Nazari 1
  • Borhan Salimi 2
1 Associate professor, Department of political science, University of Tehran
2 PhD Student of political science, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Purpose: In recent decades, the far-right populist parties and movements, after a recess (in Germany and Italy between the two world wars), have returned to the political scene of European democracy. Return of populism to the political scene of Western Europe in the form of far-right movements rooted in the failure of the traditional parties in a sufficient and adequate response to issues such as globalization, economy and culture, speed and direction of integration in Europe, the issue of migration and immigration, the decline of ideologies, decreased interest in political participation and cynicism and distrust of citizens to politicians.
Findings: In recent decades, Far-right parties not only have been able to present tangibly in the political life of their communities, but also have attained great successes in electoral processes. Extreme right-wing populism in recent decades is only a model of populism in political sociology. The elements and features of this model of populism are a romantic concepttion of the people, a charismatic leader, pessimistic view of democratic institutions such as political parties and parliament (the inability of these institutions in the realization of the will and sovereignty of the people), plain language, propaganda, political rhetoric, criticizing the ruling elite, conspiracy theory in speech and political literature, and the lack of a coherent program in various aspects. This model of right-wing populism can have significant consequences. It can lead to the serious obstacles to the process of integration of Muslim immigrants in French society. On the other hand, the strengthening of radical Islamism can lead to the spread of terrorist activities.
Design/Methodology/Approach: In this paper, we use interpretive and analytical-theoretical method to discuss the French National Front as the most prominent representative of the extreme right in this country's political scene.
Originality/Value: The main finding of this paper is that through new forms of communication, populist parties have been able to communicate with citizens and their representatives. Despair of traditional policies has drawn citizens’ attention to populist parties and movements. The combination of demagogic promises and slogans such as complete and real democracy, extremely hostile attitude to the ruling parties and immigration restrictations have shaped these parties and movements.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • populism
  • Social Movements
  • far right
  • Democracy
  • the French National Front
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