عنوان مقاله [English]
Purpose: A fundamental salubrious feature of western liberal democratic system of government is political parties which compete for power. Parties in western liberal democracies are crucial in that the political systems are divided into different bipartisan, single-party, and multiparty categories according to criteria as number of parties, role and special functions, and interactions among parties. The sheer diversity of the parties and ideological rift, which are closely related, indicates the health and vitality of the democratic system. With this in mind, it is argued that political behavior and competition in elections are interpreted in a framework informed by a single most important entity, i.e., political party. In the third millennium, with party system and political success and stability of states tightly associated, a question looming around relates the new mechanizations of democracy and party system. This is the major focus of the present article.
Design/Methodology/Approach: To achieve the major focus of the present article which is an attempt to provide some answers to the above questions through bringing into the light issues as democracy and party system, the place and role of parties in legislative process in western democracies, power transition between parties, and typology of political parties, in a qualitative undertaking.
Findings: In West, political parties are formed due to democratization and liberalization processes of the societies; and formation of party system is an essential stage in political development trend. It is believed that in liberal-democratic systems, political pluralism is abridged in political partisanship and peaceful competition among parties for gaining power. If, nowadays partisanship is an inseparable element of western political life, however it has not completely responded towards requirements and could be problem in democracy, their presence could be also considered as a barrier against political pluralism; because today, political pluralism is limited to competition of certain state parties which are not able to provide real democracy due to burdening their political will on national and nation’s will. Actually, state parties foreclose equality of opportunities and parity of facilities and accordingly, chance of any kind of power from other political groups and biases and thus prevent continues and real flow of power by concentrating power in their own hands. If partisanship has been dual of liberal-democratic system at first, however, according to enhancement of role and power of political parties and their internalization, democracy or ruling of people on people is gradually replaced by ruling of parties.
Originality/Value: The main logic of the present research is laid on the hypothesis that “increasing governmental political parties” and “partisanship of western governments” has caused the establishment of “partitocratic state (party oriented state)” and challenging “democracy” by “partitocracy”. In present era, individual and plural thoughts are replaced by party reasoning; and national and public will is turned to party will. Therefore, today, national politics and policy of the nation are prescribed by political parties which are turned to part of governments, and those governments which are abridged in political parties. This process is called as foundation of “partitocratic state (party oriented state)” in western communities.