عنوان مقاله [English]
The purpose of this paper is to explain concept, nature and features of the state and the political system in Allameh Shahid Sayyed Mohammad Baqer Sadr’s thought. Among contemporary Emami thinkers, he is one of the thinkers that examined the question of the state with accuracy and attention to the principle of human nature, spirituality and Islam. He believes that it is inevitable for man and is the basis for civilization. He also explains the government due to the major crisis of contemporary human which he calls it crisis of social and political system. Therefore it is important for us to investigate his theory.
From belief in monotheism, divine justice, and human dignity Sadr derives three maxims: the absolute sovereignty of God over the world, human freedom and the need to devise collective destiny of man by himself. But the result of the acceptance of these three principles is "caliphate" and succession of man on earth instead of God and its political dimension through the formation of "state" which is undeniable due to requirements of human society.
So the main question of this paper is that in political thought of martyr Sadr, what is the state and does it have any status?
In response to this question, I study his theory about the state, on the basis of the logical reconstruction of the formation of thoughts. Methodology of this paper is logical reconstruction and analytical explanation, with regard to the question of nature and features of state theory in his thought, for presenting his theory in a coherent and logical format. On this basis, by reviewing his works, we find that in thought of martyr Sadr the state is a human and historical necessity that in its complete form is manifested in the Islamic state. So, the Islamic state is a religious necessity for realization of Islam and is a civil and civilizational necessity to bring people to perfection and well-being which is based on the principle of human nature and Creation and his needs.